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A microservice-based framework for developing internet of things and people applications
(MDPI, 2019) Macias Ojeda, Aurora; Navarro Martínez, Elena María; González López, Pascual
The Internet of things (IoT) is characterized by billions of heterogeneous, distributed, and intelligent objects—both from the digital and the physical worlds—running applications and services. Objects are connected through heterogeneous platforms providing support for the collection and management of data that need to be understood. Since IoT systems are composed by a variety of objects and services, a key aspect for engineering them is their architecture. The new paradigm called Internet of people (IoP) is not unaware of this need. In IoP, humans play an important role so that design considering aspects as context becomes critical for making the most of these applications. This work presents a context-aware, serverless, microservice-based, and cloudcentric framework for the Internet of things and people (IoT-P) applications that extends the threelayer classic IoT reference architecture. It integrates most of the aspects considered by the architecture of IoT solutions emerging from different perspectives, being also domain independent. This work focuses on the application paradigm of IoT neglected by most proposals. This framework, combined with a previous work, offers a higher separation of concerns (SoC) degree than other proposals, by splitting the application layer into different sublayers or subsystems based on their responsibilities and tracing atomic components to serverless microservices, to facilitate the design, development, and deployment of IoT-P applications. An IoT-P application in the healthcare domain is presented to illustrate how this framework can be put into practice
ERG potassium channels and T-type calcium channels contribute to the pacemaker and atrioventricular conduction in zebrafish larvae
(WILEY, 2024) Salgado Almario, Jussep alfredo; Molina Durango, Yillcer; Martínez Sielva, Antonio; Rodríguez García, Raúl; Vincent , Pierre; Vicente Ruiz, Manuel; Domingo Moreno, Beatriz; Llopis Borrás, Juan francisco
Aim: Bradyarrhythmias result from inhibition of automaticity, prolonged repolarization, or slow conduction in the heart. The ERG channels mediate the repolarizing current IKr in the cardiac action potential, whereas T-type calcium channels (TTCC) are involved in the sinoatrial pacemaker and atrioventricular conduction in mammals. Zebrafish have become a valuable research model for human cardiac electrophysiology and disease. Here, we investigate the contribution of ERG channels and TTCCs to the pacemaker and atrioventricular conduction in zebrafish larvae and determine the mechanisms causing atrioventricular block. Methods: Zebrafish larvae expressing ratiometric fluorescent Ca2+ biosensors in the heart were used to measure Ca2+ levels and rhythm in beating hearts in vivo, concurrently with contraction and hemodynamics. The atrioventricular delay (the time between the start of atrial and ventricular Ca2+ transients) was used to measure impulse conduction velocity and distinguished between slow conduction and prolonged refractoriness as the cause of the conduction block. Results: ERG blockers caused bradycardia and atrioventricular block by prolonging the refractory period in the atrioventricular canal and in working ventricular myocytes. In contrast, inhibition of TTCCs caused bradycardia and second-degree block (Mobitz type I) by slowing atrioventricular conduction. TTCC block did not affect ventricular contractility, despite being highly expressed in cardiomyocytes. Concomitant measurement of Ca2+ levels and ventricular size showed mechano-mechanical coupling: increased preload resulted in a stronger heart contraction in vivo. Conclusion: ERG channels and TTCCs influence the heart rate and atrioventricular conduction in zebrafish larvae. The zebrafish lines expressing Ca2+ biosensors in the heart allow us to investigate physiological feedback mechanisms and complex arrhythmias.
Corrigendum to “Carbon loss during the early decomposition stages of tree stumps in a post-wildfire Spanish black pine forest” [For. Ecol. Manage. 358 (2015) 321–334]
(Elsevier, 2015) Martínez García, Eduardo; Dadi , Tarek; López Serrano, Francisco Ramón; García Morote, Francisco Antonio; Andrés Abellán, Manuela; Rubio Caballero, Eva María
In the paper by Martínez-García et al. Carbon loss during the early decomposition stages of tree stumps in a post-wildfire Spanish black pine forest, 358, 321–334, the authors recently found a mistake in the values reported in Table 9 and Supplementary Figure S2. We detected a numerical error in the calculation of the annual (Mg C ha-1 year-1) and total (Mg C ha-1) C loss from decaying stumps for each study site. This unfortunate error affects only to aforementioned Table and Figure, and to four sentences of our paper where these results are presented and/or discussed. The authors regret these incorrect values appear in the publication of this paper.
Carbon loss during the early decomposition stages of tree stumps in a post-wildfire Spanish black pine forest
(Elsevier, 2015) Dadi El mesbahi, Tarek; López Serrano, Francisco Ramón; García Morote, Francisco Antonio; Andrés Abellán, Manuela; Rubio Caballero, Eva María
Post-fire carbon released by the decomposition process of tree stumps in a Spanish black pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii) forest of the Cuenca Mountain range (Spain) was assessed during the first three years after felling fire-killed trees. Carbon loss was estimated at high- and low-burn severity sites by two different ways: (1) via wood mass loss (indirect method); and (2) via in situ CO2 efflux measurements (Rstump, direct method). By the indirect method, different aboveground wood decomposition parameters were estimated, i.e. decay rate (ka) and half life period (t0,5). By the direct method, multiple regression models related stump diameter and temperature to instantaneous Rstump. The results indicate that C loss depended on post-fire environmental conditions and woody substrate quality (i.e. stump size). Both methods showed similar C release patterns, with higher values obtained by the direct method for all study sites and tree stump sizes, likely because a portion of the CO2 originating in the belowground part of stump was diffused through the decomposed aboveground part. Using the defined Rstump models for ecosystem upscaling, the annual C loss of the study sites ranged from 0.08 ± 0.01 to 1.33 ± 0.06 Mg C ha-1 year-1. Thereby, stumps could be considered hot spots of CO2 production during their early stages of decomposition, which particularly at post-fire managed areas, with large numbers are left to decompose, can represent a significant and poorly studied part of the total ecosystem respiration.
Thinning and recovery effects on soil properties in two sites of a Mediterranean forest, in Cuenca Mountain (South-eastern of Spain)
(Elsevier, 2013) Wic Baena, Consuelo; Martinez , Eduardo; Andrés Abellán, Manuela; Lucas Borja, Manuel Esteban; García Morote, Francisco Antonio; Rubio Caballero, Eva María; López Serrano, Francisco Ramón
Thinning effects on soil microbial activity and biomass in two sites of a Mediterranean forest, in Cuenca Mountain (South-eastern of Spain), were compared 2–6 years following treatments. In order to study changes in these properties, five plots were established; three plots in mature natural site dominated by Pinus pinaster and Quercus ilex and two plots post-wildfire natural regeneration site dominated by Quercus ilex. In each site, a silviculture treatment of thinning had been previously carried out, while the other was left as a forest control. Soil samples were taken during the dry season (July 2010) and after the first autumn rains (October 2010). The experiment consisted on a nested factorial design with two factors: the site (two levels: mature natural and regenerated) and thinning treatment nested within site effect (three levels in mature natural site: control, thinned in 2002 and thinned in 2004, and two levels within regenerated site: control and thinned in 2008).Several sensitive variables related to the soil microbial activity such as soil respiration and biomass carbon and some enzyme activities (urease, phosphatase, ß-glucosidase and dehydrogenase) were evaluated. Physical and chemical soil variables (organic matter, total nitrogen, phosphorus, pH, conductivity and carbonates) were also measured. These variables of forest soil in autumn were highest that in summer. Also the results showed that thinning have a significant effect on soil microbiological variables and soil enzymatic activities. Thinning operations tended to alter soil variables and highly reduced the organic matter content. A significant correlation was also found between microbiological and biochemical variables and physic chemical variables, organic matter and total nitrogen. Adaptative management forest plans should consider these results in order to achieve sustainable forest management, especially in the context of soil quality and Mediterranean forest subjected to wildfire disturbances.