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Publication
Post-wildfire effects on carbon and water vapour dynamics in a Spanish black pine forest
(Springer, 2015) Dadi , Tarek; Rubio Caballero, Eva María; López Serrano, Francisco Ramón; Andrés Abellán, Manuela; García Morote, Francisco Antonio; Heras Ibáñez, Jorge Antonio de las
Two eddy covariance systems were installed in a high-severity burned zone (BZ) and an adjacent unburned (UNB) zone to monitor water vapour and carbon dioxide fluxes for 21 months (from June 2011 to February 2013) at a Spanish black pine forest affected by a stand-replacing wildfire and located in a mountainous area of central-eastern Spain. The differences between both sites were significant especially during the growing season, affecting gross primary productivity (GPP) more than ecosystem respiration (Reco). Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) for 2012 was -3.97 and 1.80 t C ha-1 year-1 for the unburned and burned sites, respectively, the GPP being 64 % lower for the BZ than the UNB zone. Evapotranspiration (ET) at the UNB was 18 % greater than at the BZ. Difference between sites was 160 mm during the whole studied period. This study reflects the effect of one of the major disturbances that can affect Mediterranean ecosystems, showing that carbon fluxes are more dramatically concerned than water vapour fluxes.
Publication
Is the net primary productivity of coppice forest stands of Quercus ilex ssp. ballota affected by post-fire thinning treatments and recurrent fires?
(Csiro Publishing, 2010) López Serrano, Francisco Ramón; Heras Ibáñez, Jorge Antonio de las; Moya Navarro, Daniel; García Morote, Francisco Antonio; Rubio Caballero, Eva María
Coppice forest stands of Quercus ilex have been one of the forest types most impacted by fire in Spain. After fire, their capability to resprout produces a high density of stems that requires thinning in order to avoid stagnation within the stands. In August 1993 and July 2001, two consecutive fires affected a Quercus ilex coppice stand in SE Spain. This study investigated the effects of different post-fire thinning treatments and recurrent fires on stock and net new carbon increment (NNCI) in a 6-year-old coppice stand. Four degrees of thinning were applied: medium thinning (to a final density of 5000 trees ha–1), drastic thinning (to 1800 trees ha–1), full felling (all trees removed) and no thinning (control). Results showed NNCI was within the lower limit of the average global values reported for net primary productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. The best thinning treatment to maximise both current annual NNCI and mean annual NNCI stimulation, and keep new resprouting within reasonable levels was medium thinning. However, recurrent fires caused the observed net primary productivity to decrease, which allowed us to conclude that stump vitality is affected by successive fires, at least the first year after a new fire.
Publication
EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN SPAIN: GENDER DIFFERENCES BY EDUCATION AND ICT USAGE
(Universidad de Santiago de Compostela. Asociación de Estudios Euro-Americanos de Desarrollo Económico, 2014) Tobarra Gómez, María Ángeles; López Santiago, Luis Antonio; Gómez Sanz, Nuria
Education is a main determinant of employment, but not in isolation. Informationand Communication Technologies (ICT) skills have become a key element to facilitate employment opportunities. The growth in female educational attainment and ICT use is closing the gender divide and favouring female employment. We present evidence on this for the Spanish labour market using: a) a dynamic labour demand function; and b)analyzing the main factors explaining probabilities of finding a job based on traditional characteristics that affect employability and others related to ICT use. We develop this analysis for total population and distinguishing men and women using a Heckman model.
Publication
Forecasting energy demand through a dynamic input-output model
(Universidad de Oviedo, 2015) Dejuán Asenjo, Óscar; Córcoles Fuentes, Carmen; Gómez Sanz, Nuria; Tobarra Gómez, María Ángeles
This paper builds a dynamic input-output model able to forecast energy demand in different economic and legislative scenarios. Its main features are these. (1) As an input-output model embedded in a social accounting matrix that takes into account the structure of the economy and the relations between sectors (industries) and institutions (households). (2) As an applied and computable general equilibrium model it relates the system of prices and quantities. (3) As a dynamic model it considers the evolution of coefficients and energy multipliers. These are the key tools of our forecasting model and our main contribution. The simulations performed for the Spanish economy show that quantity shocks are more important than price shocks, due to the low price-elasticity of the demand for energy.
Publication
NATIONAL AND SUB-NATIONAL OFFSHORING IMPACT ON EMPLOYMENT: AN APPLICATION TO MADRID REGION
(Universidad de Jaén, 2016) Tobarra Gómez, María Ángeles; López Santiago, Luis Antonio; Gómez Sanz, Nuria; Cadarso Vecina, María Ángeles
The effect of delocalization on a national economy has been widely studied, however subnational delocalization remains as an unvisited field for researchers. This paper studies the effects of fragmentation and the subsequent localization outside or abroad on the level of industrial and services employment in Madrid region. We work with Madrid data from regional input-output tables and estimate a labour demand function using panel data. Our results show a significant and small negative effect on regional employment of intra-industrial inputs from the national economy and abroad, while imported inputs from other sectors and origins are complementary to employment, resulting in a positive net effect on employment. The increasing specialization in main activities and the use of external providers by firms have a positive impact on the employment of Madrid region.