Electrokinetic flushing with surrounding electrode arrangements for the remediation of soils that are polluted with 2,4-D
Risco Manzano, Carolina
López-Vizcaíno López, Rubén
Cañizares Cañizares, Pablo
Navarro Gamir, Vicente
Rodrigo Rodrigo, Manuel Andrés
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This work aimed to evaluate electrokinetic soil flushing (EKSF) technologies for the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) from spiked soils using an electrode configuration consisting of one cathode surrounded by six anodes (1c6a) and one anode surrounded by 6 cathodes (1a6c). Experiments were conducted for over one month in a bench-scale set-up (175 dm3 of capacity) that was completely automated and operated at a constant electric field (1.0 V cm− 1). The electrical current, temperature, pH, moisture and pollutant concentration in electrolyte wells were monitored daily, and at the end of the experiments, an in-depth sectioned analysis of the complete soil section (post-mortem analysis) was conducted. Despite the geometric similarity, the two strategies led to very different results mainly in terms of water and herbicide mobilization, whereas pH and conductivity do not depend strongly on the electrode configuration. The volume of water extracted from cathodes with 1a6c is seven times higher than that of the 1c6a strategy. Herbicide was transported to the anode wells by electromigration and then dragged toward the cathode wells by electro-osmotic fluxes, with the first process being much more important. The configuration 1c6a was the most efficient and attained a transfer of 70% of the herbicide contained in the soil to flushing water in 35 days. These results outperform those obtained by the configuration 1a6c, for which less than 8% of the herbicide was transferred to flushing fluids in a much longer time (58 days).